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How to build a Dakota Fire Hole (Step-by-Step with Pictures)



If you’re out on your own, you’ll need to keep warm in the wilderness and be able to cook and boil water for drinking. Fires need to be closely monitored and kept under control, but sometimes that control is difficult to maintain.

a functioning Dakota fire pit

The wind either blows your fire out or puts it into the bush and then you have a bigger problem.

This is something that the Native American tribes of the Dakotas understood very well, and they came up with an ingenious solution, the fire hole.

So, what is a Dakota fire hole, how does it work, and how do you make one?

The History of the Dakota Fire Pit

The Dakota fire hole is an ancient technique. Back in the day, the Native American tribes were very nomadic. They were constantly on the move – following the bison herds that roamed the plains

After all, they had to eat and you can’t eat if you don’t follow the food, right? Well, unfortunately, the winds on the plains could be quite strong – as I said before, they were quite a nuisance – this made starting a fire risky business.

If the wind picked up at the wrong moment, there could be a fire with near-infinite fuel raging across the plains.

There was also the added risk of being seen by enemy raiders, and they had to cook and eat. To get around these issues, they came up with this crazy idea – to build the fire underground.

By doing this, they kept the fire contained and avoided the troublesome elements and risk of a brush fire.

This method also allowed the fire to be easily concealed when necessary. Interestingly, however, keeping the fire concealed was not the original purpose of the Dakota fire pit.

It was primarily used while the Dakota tribes were out hunting bison because it allowed for a very hot fire that used very little fuel.

The Dakota fire pit was a simple project that worked really, really well and it’s still used by outdoorsmen today for cooking and boiling water.

close-up of the tunnel connecting the two fire pit holes

How Does it Work?

So, now that we know a little bit about the backstory of the Dakota fire pit, let’s look at how it works.

The fire pit actually consists of two pits that have been connected with a tunnel. The fire is set in one pit and the other stays empty. The empty pit is the oxygen supply, air goes into the pit and through the tunnel to the fire.

The hot air from the fire rises and creates suction which draws cooler, fresh air through the tunnel creating a looping effect.

This keeps the fire oxygenated allowing it to burn at a higher temperature for longer even while covered by a cooking pot. The fire itself loses very little heat as the hole protects it on all sides.

The Advantages of the Dakota Fire Pit

  • The biggest advantage of the Dakota fire pit is that it’s simple. With two holes linked by a tunnel, it’s kind of difficult to mess that up.
  • The airflow channels the heat straight to the cooking area which means you can use less fuel.
  • Since it’s underground, the fire doesn’t produce as much smoke as a regular campfire. This is great for if you’re stealth camping as it helps with concealment. It’s also much easier to manage than your regular campfire.
  • The size of the first hole confines the fire to a small space, this focuses the heat from the flame in one spot.

The Disadvantages of the Dakota Fire Pit

  • Dakota fire pits have very particular geological needs. If the soil is too sandy, the hole won’t work well. Likewise, if there are lots of tree roots or rocks, you may not be able to dig at all.
  • They’re also very time-consuming to build despite their simple design.
  • This design is great for cooking as the heat is focused on the opening of the fire pit, but not good for keeping warm.
  • Bad weather can also pose a serious problem. Rain, for example, will fill both the fire and oxygen pits with water rendering the fire pit useless until the rain’s gone and the water’s dried up.

Why Build a Fire in the Ground?

Well, for starters you’re out of the wind which means that you won’t have to worry about the fire being extinguished by a strong gust.

You also won’t have to worry about your embers being blown into the surrounding brush by high winds, re-igniting, and raging out of control.

Sometimes you just want to get away and not be noticed on a camping trip, having your fire underground makes it barely visible allowing you to stay unnoticed.

Another reason to build a fire in the ground is security in a disaster/survival situation.

Regular campfires are often very visible – depending on weather conditions and distance – and you often end up leaving a pile of ash behind when the fire’s out.

If you’re in a situation where that’s a bad thing (i.e. you don’t want certain people to find you), then building your fire underground makes a lot of sense.

Why? Because when you’re done you can just bury it – who’s going to know you were there if there’s no sign of a fire? It’s kind of hard to track someone if there’s little to no trace of them, isn’t it?

Are Smokeless Fire Pits Healthier?

Yes, since a smokeless pit uses less fuel, it’s not producing the same amount of smoke that a regular fire would.

This means you’re not inhaling as much, if any smoke, greatly reducing if not eliminating the risk of carbon monoxide poisoning and lung damage via smoke inhalation.

The smoke that is produced is typically dispersed by the fire itself before it reaches us so we avoid inhaling and smelling like smoke.

Where to Build your Dakota Fire Pit

A Dakota fire hole/pit can be made on any flat surface that’s been cleared of vegetation and debris (i.e. rocks).

If you’d like to further disperse the smoke, you can build the hole under a tree – just make sure it’s tall enough that it won’t catch fire.

You should avoid digging in areas where:

  • The ground is very rocky – it’ll be harder to dig your hole with rocks in the way.
  • The soil is loose and/or sandy. The soil must be able to keep its shape while you dig or you’re just going to be wasting your time constantly re-digging a collapsed hole.
  • There are tree roots that you’ll have to cut through.
  • The hole will probably fill with water easily.

Building Your Own Dakota Fire Pit in 3 Easy Steps

You don’t need much in order to build a Dakota fire pit…

  • A flat surface that’s been cleared of vegetation and debris
  • A spade/shovel to do the digging
  • Rocks to hold your pot

You don’t really need much more than a shovel in order to make a Dakota fire pit because you’re basically just digging. You can also use it to clear the vegetation from the area where you want the pit to be.

Vegetation and debris can make digging the hole more than a little bit difficult – vegetation can also create a fire hazard. You can also grab a few rocks to line the fire side of the hole.

If you’re in a tight spot and you don’t have a shovel, you can use a strong stick to dig your Dakota fire pit.

Step 1: Check the Location

The first thing you want to do is check your location. Is the soil good for the pit (it’s not sandy or too rocky)? Keep an eye out for any potential hazards (i.e. flooding and fire) and changes in the weather conditions – i.e. wind direction.

Step 2: Mark Your Holes

This is the other important step because your holes need to be positioned in the right place if you want the pit to work.

The oxygen chamber should be around 8 inches (20 cm) in diameter and aimed toward the prevailing winds.

The fire pit/chamber should be about 10 inches (25 cm) in diameter and positioned downwind of the oxygen chamber with a distance of about 5-6 inches (8-10 cm) or so between the two holes (for the tunnel between them).

Step 3: Dig the First Hole

Once you’ve got your holes and tunnel marked, it’s time to start digging. Start by removing any vegetation (grass) from the area. When that’s been done, you dig the two holes.

The first hole that you’ll dig is the oxygen chamber, dig a hole with a slight downward slope (to allow air to enter the hole) with a diameter of about 15cm.

You want a reliable draft that will send air directly to the base of the fire and keep it oxygenated.

two holes of Dakota fire pit seen from above for size comparison
Notice how the diameter of the oxygen chamber is visibly smaller from the diameter of the fire chamber.

Step 4: Dig the Second Hole

When you’ve finished digging the oxygen chamber, you move on to the second hole. This one should be downwind of the oxygen chamber and around 25cm in diameter. It needs to be large enough to hold a small fire comfortably.

Step 5: Dig the Connection Tunnel

two holes in the ground with connection tunnel

When the holes are dug, you dig the tunnel which should be roughly 20 cm long between the two holes and 15cm in diameter – you can change this if needed.

Lighting and Extinguishing Your Fire

When it comes to lighting your fire, you set it up the same way you would set up a regular campfire – the only difference is that you’re setting it up in a hole.

lighting a dakota fire pit

You use a bit of tinder and because you only have so much space to work with, small twigs as fuel. You can line the hole with rocks to hold your cooking pot/pan securely over the flame.

Adding fuel to the hole, simply lift the pot and drop new sticks into the fireside of the pit.

When you’re done with your fire, and you want to put it out, there are a couple of ways to do it…

One way is to throw dirt/sand into the hole over the fire, this starves the fire of oxygen which, of course, means it can’t burn.

Alternatively, you can let the fire burn through the fuel – just don’t leave the fire completely unattended (that’s just irresponsible).


Who invented the Dakota Fire Hole?

The basic concept of the fire hole can be found all over the world, but its original founding/invention is attributed to the Native American tribes of the Dakotas.

What’s the Point of a Dakota Fire Hole?

The purpose of the Dakota Fire Hole is to have a tightly controlled heat source for camping and cooking that isn’t at risk of having the wind blow out the match/sparks.

Are Dakota Fire Holes smokeless?

Almost. Dakota fire holes still produce smoke but they are incredibly hot-burning and don’t need much in the way of fuel to get going. The reduced fuel requirement means that you don’t end up with as much smoke as you’d get with a regular fire. Placing the hole under a tall tree allows you to disperse the smoke through the foliage.

How do Dakota Fire Holes work?

Your oxygen chamber/pit is slightly sloped to allow the air to enter. Air flows through the tunnel to the fire pit/chamber and keeps things burning.

How deep do Dakota Fire Holes need to be?

The depth of the hole depends on how far underground you want your fire to be. On average, however, a good depth is around 30cm.

dakota fire hole pinterest

Source link: by Greg Seebregts at

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Wilderness Survival Skills That Can Save Your Kids’ Lives 




Teaching children wilderness survival skills can be an enriching and empowering experience, fostering their confidence and independence while instilling a deeper connection with nature. However, it’s essential to prioritize safety and age-appropriate learning experiences when introducing children to outdoor skills. 

It’s important for a prepared parent to find age-appropriate wilderness survival skills for children. These skills should emphasize hands-on learning and the importance of supervision.

Shelter Building For Kids

Building a shelter is a fundamental survival skill that children can learn and practice under adult supervision. Start with simple shelter designs using natural materials such as branches, leaves, and tarps. Teach children how to assess their surroundings for suitable shelter locations and how to construct sturdy structures to protect against the elements.

Identifying Edible Plants For Kids

Teaching children to identify edible plants can enhance their foraging skills and knowledge of the natural environment. Begin by introducing them to a few common edible plants in your area, emphasizing safety and the importance of proper identification. Supervise children closely and guide them in harvesting and tasting edible plants responsibly.

Fire Safety and Fire Starting For Kids

While starting a fire may seem like an advanced skill, children can learn basic fire safety principles and techniques under adult supervision. Teach them about fire safety rules, including selecting a safe location, clearing the area of debris, and using proper fire-starting tools such as matches or fire starters. Demonstrate how to build a small fire and maintain it responsibly, emphasizing the importance of fire management and extinguishing techniques.

How Kids Can Signal for Help


In emergency situations, knowing how to signal for help can be a life-saving skill. Teach children basic signaling methods such as using a whistle, mirror, or brightly colored clothing to attract attention. Practice signaling techniques in a safe outdoor environment, and discuss the importance of staying calm and alert while waiting for rescuers to arrive.

Hands-On Learning Experiences

Encourage hands-on learning experiences to reinforce wilderness survival skills and build confidence in children. Plan outdoor activities such as nature hikes, camping trips, or wilderness outings where children can practice shelter building, plant identification, fire starting, and signaling for help under adult supervision. Provide opportunities for children to apply their skills in real-life scenarios, fostering a sense of self-reliance and problem-solving abilities.

Teaching children wilderness survival skills can be a rewarding and educational experience, fostering their appreciation for nature and their ability to thrive in outdoor environments. By introducing age-appropriate skills such as shelter building, plant identification, fire safety, and signaling for help, children can develop valuable life skills and a deeper connection with the natural world. Remember to prioritize safety and supervision, and encourage hands-on learning experiences to empower children to become confident and capable outdoor adventurers.

How do you teach your children survival and preparedness skills? Share your thoughts on how to teach children in the comments below. 

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Knife Skills for Preppers: Mastering Essential Techniques




In the realm of survival preparedness, few tools are as fundamental as the trusty survival knife. However, owning a high-quality knife is only half the battle; mastering essential knife skills is equally crucial for any prepper. This tutorial is designed to guide preppers through fundamental knife skills that will enhance their ability to navigate and thrive in diverse survival scenarios. 

From safe-cutting techniques to carving methods and practical tips for shelter building and food preparation, these skills will prove invaluable in the face of the unknown.

Safety First: The Foundation of Knife Skills

Before delving into specific techniques, understanding and prioritizing safety is paramount. Follow these foundational safety tips:

  • Proper Grip: Hold the knife with a firm yet comfortable grip. The index finger should wrap around the handle, ensuring control and preventing accidental slips.
  • Knife Inspection: Regularly inspect your knife for any damage, including chips or rust. A well-maintained blade ensures safer use.
  • Clear Workspace: Create a clean and organized workspace. Clear away debris and ensure good lighting to avoid accidents.
  • Body Positioning: Pay attention to your body positioning. Keep your non-dominant hand and fingers away from the cutting path to prevent injuries.

Basic Cutting Techniques: Building a Foundation

Next, it’s important to learn basic cutting techniques. Without knowing these cutting techniques, you have no chance of performing more advanced techniques with your knife. 

  • The Rocking Motion: Ideal for chopping and slicing, the rocking motion involves moving the knife’s blade back and forth while keeping the tip in contact with the cutting surface.
  • Draw Cutting: Drawing the knife towards you in a controlled manner is effective for precision cutting, especially when creating fine slices or making detailed cuts.
  • Tip Control: Mastering control over the tip of the knife is essential for intricate tasks. Practice guiding the tip with precision for accurate cuts.

Carving Methods: Precision in Action

A man is cutting mushroom with a knife.

Carving is one of the most important skill sets you can have with a knife. The basic carving methods are as follows:

  • Whittling: Whittling involves carving small, controlled cuts to shape wood or other materials. It’s a useful skill for crafting tools or creating tinder for fire starting.
  • Feathering: Feathering is a technique for creating fine curls of wood, often used in fire starting. It requires controlled slicing with the grain of the wood.
  • Notching: Notching involves carving small grooves or notches into materials, a skill useful for creating traps, shelters, or tools in a survival setting.

Practical Tips for Survival Scenarios: Beyond Cutting


Once you go beyond cutting, there are a number of things that you can use a knife for that will keep you alive in survival scenarios. 

  • Shelter Building: Use your knife to process materials for building shelters. Master techniques such as notching, carving stakes, and shaping branches for a secure and weather-resistant shelter.
  • Food Preparation: From gutting and filleting fish to processing game, a well-honed knife is essential for procuring and preparing food in a survival situation. Practice efficient and safe cutting techniques for various food sources.
  • Fire Starting: In addition to knives with built-in fire starters, use your knife to prepare firewood by splitting or feathering. Mastering these techniques ensures a reliable fire, a crucial element for survival.
  • Tool Crafting: A versatile knife can be used to craft essential tools in the wild. From fashioning cordage to carving simple implements, having a repertoire of tool-making skills broadens your capabilities in the field.

Continuous Improvement: Sharpening and Maintenance

Even the most skilled preppers need to maintain their knives for optimal performance. Regularly sharpen your knife using your preferred technique, whether it’s a whetstone, rod, or sharpening system. Keep the blade clean, dry, and well-oiled to prevent rust and maintain its longevity.

Knife skills are the unsung heroes of the prepper’s toolkit. By mastering essential techniques, preppers enhance their ability to navigate and conquer diverse survival scenarios. From safe-cutting practices to carving methods and practical tips for real-world applications, continuous improvement in knife skills is an investment in preparedness. 

As you embark on your journey to master the edge of survival, remember that the knife is not just a tool; it’s an extension of your capabilities, a versatile ally in the face of the unpredictable challenges that may lie ahead.

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Prepping with Kids: Teaching Your Children Survival Skills




In the world of prepping, involving the entire family is not just a practical decision—it’s an essential one. Teaching children survival skills not only imparts valuable knowledge but also fosters a sense of resilience and preparedness. Balancing age-appropriate information with practical skills is the key to making prepping a family affair. 

Getting Started Teaching Your Children About Survival Skills


Start with age-appropriate discussions about preparedness. Tailor the information to the child’s understanding, focusing on the importance of being ready for unexpected situations. Avoid instilling fear but rather emphasize the empowerment that comes with knowledge and preparation.

Conduct family emergency drills to make the learning experience tangible. Practice fire drills, evacuation procedures, and basic first aid. Make it a game by timing each drill and celebrating successful completion, turning what could be a stressful experience into a positive and empowering one.

Teach basic navigation skills through fun activities like treasure hunts or geocaching. Introduce the concept of using a compass or map, turning it into a game that enhances both navigation skills and the ability to communicate effectively in the wild.

Making Survival Skills an Adventure for Children

Plan family camping trips to teach children essential outdoor survival skills in a controlled environment. Teach them how to set up a tent, build a fire safely, and cook simple meals. Use this time to introduce concepts like Leave No Trace ethics and respecting nature.

Involve children in gardening and foraging activities to impart sustainable survival skills. Teach them about edible plants, gardening techniques, and the importance of self-sufficiency. This not only provides practical knowledge but also instills a sense of responsibility toward the environment.

Cooking can be an excellent way to teach children practical survival skills. Demonstrate how to prepare meals using non-perishable or long-lasting ingredients. Discuss food preservation methods like canning or dehydrating and involve them in the process.

Engage in do-it-yourself (DIY) projects that build preparedness tools. Create emergency kits together, incorporating age-appropriate items like a flashlight, whistle, or small first aid supplies. This not only imparts practical knowledge but also instills a sense of ownership over their preparedness.

Use Your Words to Teach Survival Skills to Children


Incorporate storytelling into the prepping process. Share survival stories, both fictional and real-life, to emphasize the importance of quick thinking, resourcefulness, and preparedness. Discuss the characters’ actions and decisions, encouraging critical thinking in different scenarios.

Create an open environment where children feel comfortable asking questions and expressing curiosity. Encourage them to share their thoughts on preparedness and discuss any concerns they might have. This fosters a preparedness mindset and reinforces the importance of ongoing learning.

Prepping with kids is not just about imparting survival skills; it’s about building resilient families. By balancing age-appropriate discussions with practical activities, families can turn the prepping journey into an engaging and empowering experience for children. 

From outdoor adventures to DIY projects, every activity becomes an opportunity to instill a sense of preparedness, responsibility, and the importance of working together as a family. As you embark on this journey, remember that teaching survival skills to children is not just about preparing for the unknown; it’s about shaping resilient, capable, and confident individuals who can navigate life’s challenges with strength and resourcefulness.

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